Volume 8, Number 2 (2023)
Year Launched: 2016
ISSN: 2995-3901
Journal Menu
Previous Issues
Why Us
-  Open Access
-  Peer-reviewed
-  Rapid publication
-  Lifetime hosting
-  Free indexing service
-  Free promotion service
-  More citations
-  Search engine friendly
Contact Us
Email:   service@scirea.org
1 Rockefeller Plaza, 10th and 11th Floors, New York, NY 10020 U.S.A.
Home > Journals > SCIREA Journal of Education > Archive > Paper Information

Psychological Need Satisfaction, Motivational regulation, and Leisure-time Physical Activity of Chinese College Athletes: Comparison Across Gender and Competition Level

Volume 8, Issue 2, April 2023    |    PP. 64-88    |PDF (394 K)|    Pub. Date: April 17, 2023
DOI: 10.54647/education880424    33 Downloads     469 Views  

Yan Liang, Sino-French Joint Research Center of Sport Science, College of Physical Education and Health, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; University Rennes 2, Rennes, Bretagne, France
Tongtong Guo, College of Physical Education and Health, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China
Jian Yang, College of Physical Education and Health, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China

Based on the self-determination theory process model, we explored the cor-relations between the latent constructs of psychological need satisfaction, motivational regulation, and leisure-time physical activity. College athletes (n=300) between 18 and 25 years of age completed a test battery on motivational aspects based on self-determination theory. Basic Psychological Need in Exercise Scale and Behavior Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2 were used to measure psychological need satisfaction and motivational regulation in exercise context. International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measured leisure-time physical activity in different intensity. Results show that autonomous motivation and identified regulation are mediators in the association between psychological need satisfaction and leisure-time physical activity. Gender and competition levels moderated several of the paths in the model linking psychological need satisfaction with motivational regulation and lei-sure-time physical activity. Research results support the theoretical hypothesis of SDT in physical activity context, as well as demonstrating gender and competition level differences in the proposed sequential mechanisms. This study highlighted the potential value of considering moderating factors and the need to further examine the underlying mechanisms between psychological need, motivational regulation, and lei-sure-time physical activity.

Psychological need; motivational regulation; leisure-time physical activity; college athlete; gender; competition level

Cite this paper
Yan Liang, Tongtong Guo, Jian Yang, Psychological Need Satisfaction, Motivational regulation, and Leisure-time Physical Activity of Chinese College Athletes: Comparison Across Gender and Competition Level, SCIREA Journal of Education. Vol. 8 , No. 2 , 2023 , pp. 64 - 88 . https://doi.org/10.54647/education880424


[ 1 ] Athanasios K. Grade and gender differences in students' self-determination for participating in physical education[J]. J EDUC SCI PSYCHOL, 2007 (2): 23-30.
[ 2 ] Baranowski, T., Anderson, C., & Carmack, C. Mediating variable framework in physical activity interventions: How are we doing? how might we do better? Am J Prev Med, 1998, 15(4), 266-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00080-4
[ 3 ] Bartholomew K, Ntoumanis N, Thøgersen-Ntoumani C. Self-determination theory and the darker side of athletic experience: The role of interpersonal control and need thwarting[J]. INT REV SPORT EXER P, 2011, 7(2): 23-27.
[ 4 ] Bhavsar N, Ntoumanis N, Quested E, et al. Self-determination theory[M]. The Routledge international encyclopedia of sport and exercise psychology. Routledge, 2020: 565-583.
[ 5 ] Cheung G W, Rensvold R B. Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance[J]. STRUCT EQU MODELING, 2002, 9(2): 233-255. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5
[ 6 ] Calvo T G, Cervelló E, Jiménez R, et al. Using self-determination theory to explain sport persistence and dropout in adolescent athletes[J]. SPAN J PSYCHOL, 2010, 13(2): 677-684. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1138741600002341
[ 7 ] Chen R, Wang L, Wang B, et al. Motivational climate, need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and physical activity of students in secondary school physical education in China[J]. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 2020, 20(1): 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09750-x
[ 8 ] Craig C L, Marshall A L, Sjöström M, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity[J]. MED SCI SPORT EXER, 2003, 35(8): 1381-1395.https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000078924.61453.fb
[ 9 ] Deci E L, Ryan R M, Gagné M, et al. Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former eastern bloc country: A cross-cultural study of self-determination[J]. PERS SOC PSYCHOL B, 2001, 27(8): 930-942.
[ 10 ] Deci E L, Vansteenkiste M . Self-determination theory and basic need satisfaction: Understanding human development in positive psychology [J]. RIC PSICOL, 2004, 27(1):23-40.
[ 11 ] Edmunds J, Ntoumanis N, Duda J L. A test of self‐determination theory in the exercise domain[J]. J COMMUNITY APPL SOC, 2006, 36(9): 2240-2265. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00102.x
[ 12 ] Frederick-Recascino C M, Schuster-Smith H. Competition and intrinsic motivation in physical activity: A comparison of two groups[J]. J Sport Behav, 2003, 26(3): 240-254.
[ 13 ] Global status report on physical activity [M]. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2022.
[ 14 ] Gillison F B, Standage M, Skevington S M. Relationships among adolescents' weight perceptions, exercise goals, exercise motivation, quality of life and leisure-time exercise behaviour: a self-determination theory approach[J]. HEALTH EDUC RES, 2006, 21(6): 836-847. https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyl139
[ 15 ] Guérin E, Bales E, Sweet S, et al. A meta-analysis of the influence of gender on self-determination theory's motivational regulations for physical activity[J].CAN PSYCHOL, 2012, 53(4): 291. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030215
[ 16 ] Hu L, Bentler P M. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives[J]. STRUCT EQU MODELING, 1999, 6(1): 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
[ 17 ] IPAQ group. Guidelines for data processing and analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire(IPAQ)[EB/OL].2005. http://www.ipaq.ki.se/scoring.html.
[ 18 ] Jowett G E, Hill A P, Hall H K, et al. Perfectionism and junior athlete burnout: The mediating role of autonomous and controlled motivation[J]. SPORT EXERC PERFORM, 2013, 2(1): 48. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029770
[ 19 ] Kline R B. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling[M]. Guilford publications, 2015.
[ 20 ] Keshtidar M, Behzadnia B. Prediction of intention to continue sport in athlete students: A self-determination theory approach[J]. PLOS ONE, 2017, 12(2): e0171673. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0171673
[ 21 ] Karin Weman-Josefsson, Lindwall Magnus, Ivarsson Andreas. Need satisfaction, motivational regulations and exercise: moderation and mediation effects[J]. INT J BEHAV NUTR PHY, 2015, 12(1): 67. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-015-0226-0
[ 22 ] Lonsdale C, Hodge K, Rose E. Athlete burnout in elite sport: A self-determination perspective[J]. J SPORT SCI, 2009, 27(8): 785-795. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410902929366
[ 23 ] Mouratidis A, Michou A, Sayil M, et al. It is autonomous, not controlled motivation that counts: Linear and curvilinear relations of autonomous and controlled motivation to school grades[J]. Learning and Instruction, 2021, 73: 101433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2020.101433
[ 24 ] Liu J D, Chung P K, Duan Y. Validity and reliability of the Chinese translation of Basic Psychological Need in Exercise Scale[J]. EUR J PSYCHOL ASSESS, 2013, 29(1): 51. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000120
[ 25 ] Liu J D, Chung P K, Zhang C Q, et al. Chinese-translated Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2: evidence from university students in the Mainland and Hong Kong of China[J]. J SPORT HEALTH SCI, 2015, 4(3): 228-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2014.03.017
[ 26 ] Lauderdale M E, Yli-Piipari S, Irwin C C, et al. Gender differences regarding motivation for physical activity among college students: A self-determination approach[J]. PHYS EDUC-US, 2015, 72(5). https://doi.org/10.18666/TPE-2015-V72-I5-4682
[ 27 ] Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee (2008). Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report, 2008. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2008, A1-H14.
[ 28 ] Rhodes R E, Nigg C R. Advancing physical activity theory: A review and future directions[J]. EXERC SPORT SCI REV, 2011, 39(3): 113-119. https://doi.org/10.1097/JES.0b013e31821b94c8
[ 29 ] Rhodes R E, McEwan D, Rebar A L. Theories of physical activity behaviour change: A history and synthesis of approaches[J]. J SPORT EXERCISE PSY, 2019, 42: 100-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.11.010
[ 30 ] Ryan R M, Deci E L. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions[J]. CONTEMP EDUC PSYCHOL, 2000, 25(1): 54-67. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1020
[ 31 ] Ryan R M, Deci E L. Self-determination theory: Basic psychological need in motivation, development, and wellness[M]. Guilford Publications, 2017.
[ 32 ] Russell K L, Bray S R. Self-determined motivation predicts independent, home-based exercise following cardiac rehabilitation[J]. REHABIL PSYCHOL, 2009, 54(2): 150. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015595
[ 33 ] Standage M, Ryan R M. Self‐determination theory in sport and exercise[J]. Handbook of sport psychology, 2020: 37-56. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119568124.ch3
[ 34 ] Standage M, Sebire S J, Loney T. Does exercise motivation predict engagement in objectively assessed bouts of moderate-intensity exercise? A self-determination theory perspective[J]. J SPORT EXERCISE PSY, 2008, 30(4): 337-352. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.30.4.337
[ 35 ] Standage M, Ryan R M. Self-determination theory and exercise motivation: Facilitating self-regulatory processes to support and maintain health and well-being[M]. Advances in motivation in sport and exercise, 3rd edition. Human Kinetics, 2012: 233-270.
[ 36 ] Standage M, Gillison F B, Ntoumanis N, et al. Predicting students’ physical activity and health-related well-being: A prospective cross-domain investigation of motivation across school physical education and exercise settings[J]. J SPORT EXERCISE PSY, 2012, 34(1): 37-60. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.34.1.37
[ 37 ] Taylor, N., Conner, M., & Lawton, R. The impact of theory on the effectiveness of worksite physical activity interventions: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. HEALTH PSYCHOL REV, 2012, 6(1), 33-73. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2010.533441
[ 38 ] Teixeira P J, Carraça E V, Markland D, et al. Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: a systematic review[J]. INT J BEHAV NUTR PHY, 2012, 9(1): 1-30. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-78
[ 39 ] Thøgersen-Ntoumani C, Ntoumanis N. The role of self-determined motivation in the understanding of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations[J]. J SPORT SCI, 2006, 24(4): 393-404. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500131670
[ 40 ] Vallerand R J. Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory: A view from the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation[J]. PSYCHOL INQ, 2000, 11(4): 312-318.
[ 41 ] Vlachopoulos S P, Ntoumanis N, Smith A L. The basic psychological need in exercise scale: Translation and evidence for cross‐cultural validity[J]. INT J SPORT NUTR EXE, 2010, 8(4): 394-412. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2010.9671960
[ 42 ] White R L, Parker P D, Lubans D R, et al. Domain-specific physical activity and affective wellbeing among adolescents: an observational study of the moderating roles of autonomous and controlled motivation[J]. INT J BEHAV NUTR PHY, 2018, 15(1): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-018-0722-0
[ 43 ] Weman Josefsson K, Johnson U, Lindwall M. moderations in exercise motivation–gender and age moderates the relations of motivation quality and exercise behavior[J]. HEALTH PSYCHOL BEHAV, 2018, 6(1): 93-103. https://doi.org/10.1080/21642850.2018.1462706
[ 44 ] Weman Josefsson K, Lindwall M, Andreas I. Need satisfaction, motivational regulations and exercise: moderation and mediation effects[J]. INT J BEHAV NUTR PHY, 2015, 12(1): 67. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-015-0226-0
[ 45 ] Wang L, Chen R. Psychological need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and physical activity of students in physical education: Comparison across gender and school levels[J]. EUR J SPORT SCI, 2021: 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2021.1978558
[ 46 ] World Health Organization. Global recommendations on physical activity for health[M]. World Health Organization, 2010.

Submit A Manuscript
Review Manuscripts
Join As An Editorial Member
Most Views
by Sergey M. Afonin
3096 Downloads 68248 Views
by Jian-Qiang Wang, Chen-Xi Wang, Jian-Guo Wang, HRSCNP Research Team
63 Downloads 59697 Views
by Syed Adil Hussain, Taha Hasan Associate Professor
2456 Downloads 27878 Views
by Omprakash Sikhwal, Yashwant Vyas
2515 Downloads 24826 Views
by Munmun Nath, Bijan Nath, Santanu Roy
2404 Downloads 23810 Views
Upcoming Conferences