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Distribution of E23K Genotypes in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Subjects in Port Harcourt metropolis, Nigeria.

Volume 6, Issue 3, June 2021    |    PP. 129-149    |PDF (255 K)|    Pub. Date: April 4, 2021
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Author(s)
Brown Holy, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Npkolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Enyi Alice Ruhuoma, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Npkolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Davies Tamunoemine, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Npkolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Abstract
This study examined the distribution of the E23K allele variant of the KCNJ11 gene in type 2 diabetes mellitus and non- diabetics in a Nigerian population. The E23K polymorphism of the KCNJ11 gene results from a substitution of the amino acid lysine to glutamate at codon 23. This alteration causes a critical inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion thereby resulting in hyperglycaemia. Hundred consenting Nigerian adults (73 diabetics and 27 non-diabetic subjects) aged at least 40 participated in this study. Genotyping was carried out with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique using BanII restriction digestion enzyme. The restriction fragments were then electrophoresed on DNA grade agarose gel and the bands visualised using a UV transilluminator. The genotypes identified are the EE (150bp band), EK (150bp+178bp bands) and KK (178bp band) genotypes. The KK genotype was preponderant in the diabetic participants (52%) and was followed by the EK genotype (25.9%) while the EE genotype was more in the non-diabetic participants (66.7%). The risks conferred by the different genotypes/allele are as follows: EK (p value = 0.5639; OR = 1.32), EE (p value = 0.000; OR = 0.21), KK (p value = 0.0037; OR = 7.03), K (p value = 0.211; OR = 2.59) and E (p value = 0.0552; OR = O.52). A carrier of the KK genotype is seven times more likely than a non-carrier to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (p value = 0.0037; 7.03). Only the KK genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes complications (p value = 0.02; OR = 12.67). The p values of the selected biochemical variables are as follows: leptin = 0.95, fasting blood sugar = 0.15, C-peptide = 0.47, Cystatin C = 0.86, HbA1C = 0.01, insulin = 0.65 and HOMA = 0.65. Of the glycaemic variables analyzed, only HbAlc showed a significant difference between the diabetic and control groups (p value = 0.01) but there was no significant difference in its levels in the different genotypes (p value = 0.64). A significant association between the E23K polymorphism and T2DM was found in the Nigerian population that was studied. The KK genotype of the E23K polymorphism of the KCNJ11 gene is an independent predictor of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords
E23K, Polymorphism, Diabetes Type2, Genotype, KCNJ11 gene

Cite this paper
Brown Holy, Enyi Alice Ruhuoma, Davies Tamunoemine, Distribution of E23K Genotypes in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Subjects in Port Harcourt metropolis, Nigeria., SCIREA Journal of Clinical Medicine. Vol. 6 , No. 3 , 2021 , pp. 129 - 149 .

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