Behavior and Extra-Oral Digestion of the Wasp Sclerodermus guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Parasitizing

Volume 6, Issue 2, April 2021     |     PP. 13-44      |     PDF (669 K)    |     Pub. Date: May 17, 2021
DOI: 10.54647/biology18144    112 Downloads     3175 Views  


Lai Yanxue, Forest Pest Control and Quarantine Station of Ningbo City, Ningbo 315000, China

For many decades, the parasitic behavior of wasp Sclerodermus guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a typical generalist gregarious ectoparasitoid, was described as paralyzing the hosts by stinging with venom for egg-laying, and then their offspring larvae after hatching feed on hosts’ hemolymph for the development until emergence. However, this paper reported a new mechanism of the wasp to parasitize the host borer Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Observation on their parasitic behavior and their offspring growth discovered that the wasp needs 6 steps to complete its parasitic process, i.e. host-biting and-fighting, host-subduing and-nursing, host-liquefying and-feeding, wasps’ berried and oviposition, larval sucking and developing, cocooning and wasps’ emerging. Host-biting and host-liquefying are the key steps which would evolve an amazing array of mechanisms to create a liquid nutrient reservoir inside the borer body cavity for the parasitoid larvae’s sucking and developing. This mechanism suggests that S.guani is a species of ectoparasitoid wasp, with the characteristic of extra-oral digestion; the nature of subduing is to fully liquefy the borer internal material and help their offspring smoothly sucking the liquid nutrient from the host for development.

Sclerodermus guani, Bethylidae, Monochamus alternatus, Cerambycidae Parasitize, Extra-oral Digestion, Suck, Berried, Fecundity

Cite this paper
Lai Yanxue, Behavior and Extra-Oral Digestion of the Wasp Sclerodermus guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Parasitizing , SCIREA Journal of Biology. Volume 6, Issue 2, April 2021 | PP. 13-44. 10.54647/biology18144


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