Cystatin C biosensors for diagnosis of kidney failure – A literature review

Volume 6, Issue 6, December 2021     |     PP. 726-741      |     PDF (521 K)    |     Pub. Date: December 21, 2021
DOI: 10.54647/cm32718    85 Downloads     2939 Views  

Author(s)

Erika Ketlem Gomes Trindade, Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Federal University of Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50610-970 - Recife, Brazil.
Rosa Fireman Dutra, Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Federal University of Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50610-970 - Recife, Brazil.

Abstract
Kidney diseases are a major global health threat and the development of new and improved detection methods for early diagnostic is imperative. Biosensors are devices capable of delivering rapid and specific results, allied to the possibility of miniaturization and point-of-care diagnostics. Different transducing methods are presented and different nanomaterials are involved to produce optical and electrochemical approaches with low detection limits and fast responses. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in biosensor researches regarding efficient, specific and rapid detection of Cystatin C (CysC), an early kidney failure biomarker. A comprehensive literature search was performed, which included primary research studies on biosensors for Cystatin C detection. Although there have been great developments in the area, the biggest problem is the miniaturization and the ability to accomplish readings directly in blood or serum. This is a concern approached by some researchers in the biosensor field. Cystatin C is an effective biomarker for early diagnostic of kidney failure. The current available literature shows a trend towards the development of methods capable of simple detection with few steps to obtain readings. This has the potential to enhance outcomes for patients in dialysis and intensive care units.

Keywords
Kidney diseases; Diagnostics; Biosensors; Nanomaterials; Cystatin C.

Cite this paper
Erika Ketlem Gomes Trindade, Rosa Fireman Dutra, Cystatin C biosensors for diagnosis of kidney failure – A literature review , SCIREA Journal of Clinical Medicine. Volume 6, Issue 6, December 2021 | PP. 726-741. 10.54647/cm32718

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