Volume 4, Number 1 (2021)
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Volume 4, Issue 1, February 2021    |    PP. 1-22    |PDF (308 K)|    Pub. Date: June 8, 2021
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Dereje Teshome, Oromia Agricultural Research Institute; Yabello Pastoral and Dryland Agriculture Research Center, P.O. Box 85, Yabello, Ethiopia

Camel is an important species uniquely adapted to arid and semi-arid environments and contributes significantly to the food security of the nomadic pastoral households. Tuberculosis caused by Maycobacterium bovis is the most common form of tuberculosis in camels. The two known Mycobacteria causing Tuberculosis in camels are Maycobacterium bovis and Maycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis in dromedaries has been documented since 1888 and its geographic distribution is with great variations between regions and countries. Transmission of the disease is mainly occurs by inhalation. Infected animal introduced in to a non-infected herd act as a source infection. In advanced cases the signs of the disease are; weakness, erratic appetite, and emaciation as well as low grade fluctuating fever. Enlarged superficial lymph nodes provide a useful sign for diagnosis. A presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis in camel is often made based on history, clinical findings, tuberculin skin tests, post-mortem, bacteriological and molecular techniques. Treatment is not advised for animals. Control depends on the removal of infected animals and prevention of further introduction of infection into the herd. Conventional cost intensive test-and-slaughter schemes do not appear to be appropriate control measures for animal tuberculosis in developing countries. Tuberculosis, as a zoonosis from camel to human which is caused by principal agent; M. bovis plays an important role. In developing countries, the risk for contracting zoonotic tuberculosis is increased due to the higher infection rate in animals, absence of regular pasteurization of milk, cultural factors, poverty, malnutrition and a higher Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection rate. As a result, public awareness and appropriate control and prevention measures should be implemented to reduce the public health and economic burden of the disease. In general tuberculosis in animal as well as human is a challenging disease lack wide information on epidemiology, risk factors involved and role of M. bovis in human tuberculosis, so that significant further investigations are necessary for a better understanding of the disease; thus a better prevention and control of the infection in both animal and human.

Camel dromedary, Review, Tuberculosis, Zoonosis.

Cite this paper
Dereje Teshome, CAMEL DROMEDARY TUBERCULOSIS: A REVIEW, SCIREA Journal of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine. Vol. 4 , No. 1 , 2021 , pp. 1 - 22 .


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