Volume 3, Number 3 (2019)
Year Launched: 2016
Journal Menu
Previous Issues
Why Us
-  Open Access
-  Peer-reviewed
-  Rapid publication
-  Lifetime hosting
-  Free indexing service
-  Free promotion service
-  More citations
-  Search engine friendly
Contact Us
Email:   service@scirea.org
Home > Journals > SCIREA Journal of Environment > Archive > Paper Information

Ecotoxicity of Purified Industrial Wastewater

Volume 3, Issue 3, June 2019    |    PP. 70-93    |PDF (566 K)|    Pub. Date: June 17, 2019
180 Downloads     1709 Views  

Mariyana Lyubenova, Faculty of biology, University of Sofia, 8 D. Tzankov Blv., Bulgaria
Snejana Dineva, Faculty of Techniques and Technology, Trakia University - Stara Zagora;; Yambol 8602, "Gr. Ignatiev" str. №38, Bulgaria
Kristiana Cala, Faculty of biology, University of Sofia, 8 D. Tzankov Blv., Bulgaria
Branislav Dinich, Faculty of biology, University of Sofia, 8 D. Tzankov Blv., Bulgaria
Silvena Boteva, Faculty of biology, University of Sofia, 8 D. Tzankov Blv., Bulgaria

Copper express ecotoxicity at higher concentrations in aquatic environment, even it is an essential trace element. The contamination of environment with copper appears by manufacturing of rolled and extruded copper and copper alloy products. There is a gap of knowledge how the toxicity of copper is changes in dependence on aquatic conditions. The aim of study is to evaluate the toxic effects of higher copper concentrations added to purify industrial wastewater (PIWW) and to compare those effects with the same copper concentrations, but in distilled water. Also the aim of investigation included the assessment of potential toxicity of PIWW. The probable toxicity of PIWW has been evaluated using test-systems with Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon) and Lepidium sativum L (garden cress). The acute toxicity of purified wastewater was tested with Pseudorasbora parva. The conditions of test were kept according to ISO 7346. The acute toxicity of PIWW was calculated in compliance with mortality of Pseudorasbora parva in dilutions 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 times, and distillate water (DW) was used as a control. The LC50 has been calculated approximately at 8x (7.69) times dilution of PIWW. The toxic effect of PIWW with and without copper ions, added as CuSO4 have been measured using Lepidium sativum L. The comparison of the toxic effects of the same concentrations of copper in PIWW and DW, mixed and non-mixed contamination has been evaluated. It was found that Cu+2 has inhibitory effects on the root’s and stem’s growth of Lepidium sativum L seeds, and that effect appears in concentrations over 2 mg/l Cu+2. The 50% inhibition of root’s growth in DW was EC50=7.26 mg/l of copper ions, while for PIWW that concentration was EC50 =17.23 mg/l Cu+2. The calculated EC50 for stem’s growing in DW was 54.57 mg/l Cu+2 and 72.07 mg/l Cu+2 in PIWW. The observed EC50 differences in DW and PIWW perhaps are due to the formation of ligand compounds among copper cations and other impurities in the wastewater and hence as consequences reducing of free Cu+2 or their bioavailability, hereafter that reduce copper toxicity. It was observed that PIWW diminished growth inhibitory effect of copper ions on Lepidium sativum L seeds lessening its amount by involving free Cu+2 in complexes with other waste products.

toxicity biotest, copper ions, purified industrial wastewater, Lepidium sativum L., Pseudorasbora parva

Cite this paper
Mariyana Lyubenova, Snejana Dineva, Kristiana Cala, Branislav Dinich, Silvena Boteva, Ecotoxicity of Purified Industrial Wastewater, SCIREA Journal of Environment. Vol. 3 , No. 3 , 2019 , pp. 70 - 93 .


[ 1 ] Nagajyoti P. C.; Lee K. D.; Sreekanth T. V. M. Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: a review. Environ Chem Lett. 2010, 8, 199–216. DOI 10.1007/s10311-010-0297-8.
[ 2 ] Tchounwou P. B.; Yedjou C. G.; Patlolla A. K.; Sutton D. J. Heavy Metals Toxicity and the Environment. PMC 4144270. 2014. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7643-8340-4_6. EXS. 2012, 101, 133–164.
[ 3 ] Andrew, R.W. Toxicity relationships to copper forms in natural waters. In: R.W. Andrew, et al. (eds.), Toxicity to Biota of Metal Forms in Natural Water. International Joint Commission, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. 1976, p. 127-143.
[ 4 ] Balistrieri, L.S.; Seal R.R.; Piatak N.M; Paul B. Assessing the concentration, speciation, and toxicity of dissolved metals during mixing of acid-mine drainage and ambient river water downstream of the Elizabeth Copper Mine, Vermont, USA. Applied Geochemistry 2007, 22, 930–952.
[ 5 ] Calamari, D.; Marchetti, R. The toxicity of mixtures of metals and surfactants to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri rich.). Water Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October 1973, p. 1453-1464.
[ 6 ] Crommentuijn, T.; Polder, M.D.; Van de Plassche, E.J. Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations for Metals. Taking Background Concentrations into Account. RIVM Report no. 601501 001. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands. 1997, pp.260.
[ 7 ] Bass J.A.B.; R. Blust, R.T.; Clarke, T.A.; Corbin, Davison, W.; de Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Janssen, C.R.; Kalis, E.J.J.; Kelly, M.G.; Kneebone, N.T.; Lawlor, A.J.; Lofts, S.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Thacker, S.A.; Tipping, E.; Vincent, C.D.; Warnken, K.W.; Zhang, H. Environmental Quality Standards for trace metals in the aquatic environment Science. Report – SC030194. ISBN: 978-1-84432-887-1. 2008, p.190.
[ 8 ] Okomoda, V. T.; Ataguba, G. A.; and Ayuba, V. O. Haematological Response of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings Exposed to Acute Concentrations of Sunsate®, Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry, ISSN 1997-0838, Vol. 9 No. 2 2013, pp: 271-278.
[ 9 ] Heijerick, D.G.; De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Janssen, C.R. Predicting acute zinc toxicity for Daphnia magna as a function of key water chemistry characteristics: development and validation of a biotic ligand model. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 2002, 21 (6), 1309–1315.
[ 10 ] De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Janssen, C.R. Bioavailability and chronic toxicity of zinc to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): comparison with other fish species and development of a biotic ligand model. Environmental Science & Technology, 2004, 38 (23), 6201–6209.
[ 11 ] National Academy of Science (NAS), Health effects of excess copper. Chapter 5. In Copper in drinking water. National Academy Press. 1986. Washington DC.
[ 12 ] Oronsaye, J.A.O.; Ogbebo, P. E. Acute toxicity of copper to Clarias gariepinus in soft water. Journal of Aquatic Sciences 1997, 10, 19-23.
[ 13 ] Callahan, M.A.; Slimak M.W; Gabel N.W. Water-related environmental fate of 129 priority pollutants. Vol. I. Introduction and Technical Background, Metals and Inorganics, Pesticides and PCBs. EPA-440/4-79-029a. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia. 1979, p.132-150.
[ 14 ] WHO. World Health Organization. Switzerland: Geneva; Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. 1996, p.360.
[ 15 ] EPA. Ambient aquatic life water quality criteria for copper -1984. EPA 440/5-84-03. pp.
[ 16 ] Lee, L.; Helsel D. Baseline models of trace elements in major aquifers of the United States. Applied Geochemistry 2005, 20, 8, 1560-1570.
[ 17 ] ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). Toxicological Profile for Copper. US Public Health Service, Atlanta, Georgia. TP-90-08. 1990, pp. 143.
[ 18 ] Zamzow, K.L. Investigations of surface water quality in the Nushagak, Kvichak, and Chulitna watersheds, Southwest Alaska 2009-2010. Report prepared for The Nature Conservancy, Anchorage, AK. 2011, p. 42.
[ 19 ] Nordberg, G.F.; Fowler, B.A.; Nordberg, M.; Friberg L.T. Handbook in the toxicology of metals. 2007, Elsevier. NY.
[ 20 ] US EPA. Wildlife Exposure Factor Handbook. Vol. 1 EPA/600/R-93/187. 1993, pp.572.
[ 21 ] Horne M.T.; Dunson W.A. Effects of Low pH, Metals, and Water Hardness on Larval Amphibians. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1995, 29, 500-505.
[ 22 ] Solomon F. Impacts of Copper on Aquatic Ecosystems and Human Health. MINING.com January 2009, p.25-28.
[ 23 ] Boadi K.O.; Kuitunen M. Urban waste pollution in the Korle Lagoon, Accra, Ghana. The Environmentalist, 2002, 22, p. 301–309.
[ 24 ] Vinot I.; Pihan J.C. Circulation of copper in the biotic compartments of a freshwater dammed reservoir. Environmental Pollution, Volume 133, Issue 1, January 2005, p.169-182.
[ 25 ] Kabata-Pendias A.; Pendias H. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 1992, 365p.
[ 26 ] Vymazal J. Algae and Element Cycling in Wetlands. Lewis Pub., Boca Raton. 1995, pp. 689.
[ 27 ] Ware G. Pesticides, Theory and Application. W.H Freeman, New York. 1983, pp. 308.
[ 28 ] Davis, RA; Welty A.T.; Borrego, J.; Morales, J.A.; Pendon, J.G.; Ryan, J.G. Rio Tinto estuary (Spain): 5000 years of pollution. Environmental Geology 2000, 39, 10, 1107-1116.
[ 29 ] Nriagu, J. O. Copper in the atmosphere and precipitation. In J.O. Nriagu (Editor) Copper in the Environment. Part 1: ecological cycling. John Wiley, NY. 1979, p. 45-75.
[ 30 ] Oyewo E.O. Industrial Sources and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Lagos Lagoon and their Biological Effects on Estuarine animals. Ph.D. Thesis Department of Marine Science. University of Lagos, 1998, 274 pp.
[ 31 ] Eisler, R. Handbook of chemical risk assessment: health hazards to humans, plants and animals. Volume 1: Metals. 2000, Lewis Publishers, New York.
[ 32 ] Runkel, R.L.; Bencala, K.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Walton-Day, K.; Verplanck, P.L. A comparison of pre- and post-remediation water quality, Mineral Creek, Colorado. Hydrological Processes 2009, 23, 3319-3333.
[ 33 ] Sansalone, J.J.; Buchberger, S.G.; Members ASCE. Partitioning and first flush of metals in urban road way storm water. Journal of Environmental Engineering 1997, 123, 134-143.
[ 34 ] Abel P. D. Toxicity of synthetic detergents to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Fish Biology. Volume 6, Issue 3. May 1974, p. 279–298.
[ 35 ] Pattusamy V.; Nandini, N.; Bheemappa, K. Detergent and Sewage Phosphates entering into Lake Ecosystem and Its Impact on Aquatic Environment. International Journal of Advanced Research 2013, 1, 3, 129-133.
[ 36 ] Lyubenova M.; Boteva, S. Biotests in Ecotoxicology: Current Practice and Problems. Toxicology - New Aspects to This Scientific Conundrum. Chapter 7. 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/64776
[ 37 ] Lyubenova M.; Kalchev, R. Ecotoxicology. Small practicum. Sofia, An-Di Publishing House, 2009, 333 p. (in Bulgarian).
[ 38 ] Project No 43799, Project No. 43799 of the European Bank for reconstruction and development. Extension of long-term loan to Sofia Med S.A. 2013, p.21.
[ 39 ] Dineva S.B. Main Pollutants of Food Raw Materials and Products. on line: ISBN 978-954-9999-99-0. 2016, pp.157.
[ 40 ] Bulgarian State Standard, BSS. Seed. Rules for sampling and methods for determining the qualities for sowing. Ministry of Agriculture, Sofia, 1985, p. 601.
[ 41 ] Kim, V. Probit Analysis. Available on http://userwww.sfsu.edu/efc/classes/biol710/probit/ProbitAnalysis, 2008, pp. 8
[ 42 ] Okomoda V.; Solomon, S. G.; Ataguba, G. A.; Ayuba, V. O.; Asuwaju, F. P. Acute toxicity test in aquaculture: a review. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of Fisheries Society of Nigeria. Ajuji Best Western Hotel, Joseph Gomwalk Rd., Abuja Nov. 25–29, 2013, p.171 -175.
[ 43 ] Demichela, M.; Maschio, G.; Milazzo, M.F.; Salzano, E. Vulnerability Assessment for Human Targets due to Ash Fallout From Mt. Etna. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 2013, 23, 445 – 450.
[ 44 ] Finney, D. J. Ed., Probit Analysis. Cambridge, England, 1952, Cambridge University Press. 318 p.
[ 45 ] Alexander, B.; Browse, D.J.; Reading, S.J.; Benjamin, I.S. A simple and accurate mathematical method for calculation of the EC50. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. April–June 1999, 41, 2–3, p. 55-58.
[ 46 ] Pavel V. L.; Sobariu D. L; Diaconu M.; Stătescu F.; Gavrilescu M. Effects of Heavy Metals on Lepidium sativum Germination and Growth. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Romania. April 2013, 12, 4, 727-733.
[ 47 ] Akhila, J.S.; Deepa, S.; Alwar, M.C. Acute toxicity studies and determination of median lethal dose. Current science, 2007, 93, 7, 917–920.
[ 48 ] Ayuba, V.O.; Ofojekwu, P.C. Acute toxicity of the root extract of Jimson’s Weed: Datura innoxia to the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings. Journal of Aquatic Science, 2002, 17, 2, 131 – 133.
[ 49 ] Onusiriuka, B.C. Effect of sub-lethal concentration of formalin on weight gain in the African cat fish, Clarias gariepinus (Teugels) Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 2002, 17: 66 – 68.
[ 50 ] Chapman, G.A.; McCrady, J.K. Copper toxicity: a question of form. In: Recent Advances in Fish Toxicology. U.S. EPA Ecol. Res. Servo EPA-600j3-77-085. 1977, p. 132-151.
[ 51 ] Pagenkopf, G.K.; Russo, R.C.; Thurston, R.V. Effect of complexation on toxicity of copper to fishes. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 1974, 31, 462-465.
[ 52 ] Andrew, R.W.; Biesinger K.E.; Glass G.E. Effects of inorganic complexing on toxicity of copper to Daphnia magna. Water Res. 1977, 11, 309-315.
[ 53 ] Chakoumakos, C.; Russo R.; Thurston R. The toxicicy of copper to cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) under different conditions of alkalinity, pH, and hardness. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1979, 13, 213.
[ 54 ] Howarch, R.S.; Sprague, J.B. Copper lethality co rainbow trout in waters of various hardness and pH. Water Res. 1978, 12, 455.
[ 55 ] Petersen, R., Influence of copper and zinc on the growth of freshwater algae, Scenedesmus quadricauda: the significance of speciation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1982, 16, 443.
[ 56 ] Rueter, J.G. Alkaline phosphatase inhibition by copper: implications to phosphorus nutrition and use as a biochemical marker of toxicity. Limno I. Oceanogr. 1983, 28, 743.
[ 57 ] Sunda W.; Guillard R. K. L. The relationship between cupric ion activity and the toxicity of copper to phytoplankton. I. Mar. Res. 1976, 34, 511-29.
[ 58 ] Fargašova A. Comparative Study of Ecotoxicological Effect of Triorganotin Compounds on Various Biological Subjects. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1997, 36, 38–42, ARTICLE NO. ES961483.
[ 59 ] Steeman, N. E.; Bruun H. L. Effect of CuSO4 on the photosynthetic rate of phytoplankton in four Danish lakes. Oikos 1976, 27, 239–242.
[ 60 ] Barelli, M. Etude des pollutions chimiques au moyen de deux chaînes trophiques marines. Application aux phénomènes de concentration de polluants métalliques, chrome, cuivre, zinc, mercure, plomb, à travers les organismes marins, Thesis, Université de Nice 1975. 130 pp.
[ 61 ] Lind D.; Halpern, Th.; Mark D. J. The toxicity of heavy metals, beneficiation reagents and hydrogen ion to aquatic organisms. http://www.leg.state.mn.us/lrl/lrl.asp. 1978, p.189.
[ 62 ] Gnassia-Barelli M.; Romeo, M.; Laumond, F. ; Pesando, D. Experimental studies on the relationship between natural copper complexes and their toxicity to phytoplankton. Marine Biology. March 1978, 47, 1, p. 15–19.
[ 63 ] Borgmann, U.; Ralph, K.M. Complexation and toxicity of copper and the free metal bioassay technique. Water Res. 1983, 17, 1697.
[ 64 ] Williams, P. M. The association of copper with dissolved organic matter in seawater, Limnol. and Oceanogr. 1969, 14, 156.
[ 65 ] Batley G. E.; Florence T. M. Determination of the chemical forms of dissolved cadmium, lead and copper in seawater. Mar. Chem. 1976, 4, 347-63.
[ 66 ] Stemmann, N. E.; Kamp-Nielsen L. Influence of deleterious concentrations of copper on the growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Physiol. Plant 1970, 23, 828-840.

Submit A Manuscript
Review Manuscripts
Join As An Editorial Member
Most Views
by Sergey M. Afonin
2935 Downloads 41273 Views
by Syed Adil Hussain, Taha Hasan Associate Professor
2295 Downloads 19318 Views
by Omprakash Sikhwal, Yashwant Vyas
2366 Downloads 16178 Views
by Munmun Nath, Bijan Nath, Santanu Roy
2263 Downloads 16111 Views
Upcoming Conferences