Pathogenicity of various Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains in vaccinated and non-vaccinated breeders flocks’ chicken embryos

Volume 1, Issue 1, October 2016     |     PP. 1-22      |     PDF (457 K)    |     Pub. Date: October 22, 2016
DOI:    400 Downloads     93691 Views  


Ching Giap Tan, Department of Veterinary Clinical studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.
Choon Howe Hoo, Department of Veterinary Clinical studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.
Aini Ideris, Department of Veterinary Clinical studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.
Mohd Hair-Bejo, Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.
Abdul Rahman Omar, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.
Stanley H. Kleven, Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, The University of Georgia, Athens, USA

This study was undertaken to determine the pathogenicity of six of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) local field strains in specific pathogen free and commercial broiler breeder chicken embryos and the appropriate viscera organs for sampling in hatched chickens for detection and isolation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Three hundred eighty (380) each embryonated eggs were grouped into three, according to reference strains (MGS6 and ts-11), field isolates and control (uninoculated and broth inoculated) groups. The embryonated eggs were each inoculated with 0.2ml “pleuropneumonia like organism” (PPLO) broth containing 6.2 x 10 CCU/ml of reference strain or field isolate respectively, via yolk sac, at day 6 of incubation and were examined at necropsy days 7, 10, 13 and 15 postinoculation. Grossly, reference and field MG infection groups showed more significant lesion findings when compared to control groups in SPF embryonated eggs however not significant in commercial broiler embryonated eggs. Postmortem findings of inoculated embryos for both type embryos were: dwarfing, curled toes, head edema, slightly enlarged and pale liver, slightly enlarged and pale spleen and green colour liver. Histopathological lesions of embryos from MG inoculated groups of all sources revealed that there were mild to severe infiltration of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and lymphocytes. Caseous air sac lesion score ranged from 0 to 1 for SPF embryos and 1 to 3 lesion score for commercial broiler embryos which might be due to the formation of antigen-antibodies complexes.

Mycoplasma gallisepticum, pathogenicity, Caseous airsac, Embryonated eggs

Cite this paper
Ching Giap Tan, Choon Howe Hoo, Aini Ideris, Mohd Hair-Bejo, Abdul Rahman Omar, Stanley H. Kleven, Pathogenicity of various Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains in vaccinated and non-vaccinated breeders flocks’ chicken embryos , SCIREA Journal of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 1, Issue 1, October 2016 | PP. 1-22.


[ 1 ] Bradbury J.M. 2001. Avian Mycoplasmosis. In: Frank Jordan et al, eds. Poultry Diseases. 5th ed. W.B. Saunders, 178-193.
[ 2 ] Bradbury J.M. and McCarthy J.D. 1983. Pathogenicity Mycoplasma iowae infection for chick embryos. Avian Pathology, 12: 483-496.
[ 3 ] Christensen N. H., Yavui C.A., McBain A.l., and Bradbury J.M. 1994. lnvestigations into the survival of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma iowae on materials found in the poultry house environment. Avian Pathology, 23: 127-143.
[ 4 ] Glisson J.R., and Kleven S.H. 1984. Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccination: Effects on egg transmission and egg production. Avian Diseases, 28: 406-415.
[ 5 ] Hayes M.M., Li B.J., Wear D.J., and Lo S.C. 1996. Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma fermentans and Mycoplasma penetrans in experimentally infected chicken embryos. Infection and Immunity, 64(8): 3419-3424.
[ 6 ] Jordan F.T.W. 1979. Avian mycoplasmas. In The mycoplasmas (Tully J.G. & Whitcomb R.F., eds). Academic Press, New York, 1-48.
[ 7 ] Kleven S.H., Browning G.F., Bulach D.M., Ghiocas E., Morrow C.J. and Whithear K.G. 1988. Examination of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains using restriction endonuclease DNA analysis and DNA-DNA hybridisation. Avian Pathology, 17(3): 559-570.
[ 8 ] Kleven S.H., Khan M.I. and Yamamoto R. 1990. Fingerprinting of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from multiple-age layers vaccinated with live F strain. Avian Diseases, 34(4): 984-990.
[ 9 ] Kleven S.H. 1985. Tracheal populations of Mycoplasma gallisepticum after challenge of bacterin-vaccinated chickens. Avian Diseases, 29:1012-1017.
[ 10 ] Kleven S.H. 1985. Stability of the F strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticurn in various diluents at 4, 22, and 37oC. Avian Diseases, 29:1266--1268.
[ 11 ] Kleven S.H. 1998. Mycoplasmas in the etiology of multifactorial respiratory disease. Poultry Science, 77: 1146-1149.
[ 12 ] Levisohn S., Glisson J.R. and Kleven S.H. 1985. In ovo pathogenicity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains in the presence and absence of maternal antibody. Avian Diseases, 29:188-197.
[ 13 ] Levisohn S., Dykstra M.J., Lin M.Y., Kleven S.H. 1986. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro methods for pathogenicity evaluation for Mycoplasma gallisepticum in respiratory infection. Avian Pathology, 15:233-246.
[ 14 ] Ley D.H., Avakian A.P. and Berkhoff J.E. 1993. Clinical Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in multiplier breeder and meat turkeys caused by F strain: identification by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, restriction endonuclease analysis, and the polymerase chain reaction. Avian Diseases, 37(3): 854-862.
[ 15 ] Lockaby S.B., Hoerr F.J., Kleven S.H., Lauerman L.H. 1999. Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma synoviae in chicken embryos. Avian Diseases, 43(2):331-337.
[ 16 ] Mahmood Akhtar, Aisha Nazli, and Mohammad Altaf Khan. 1991. Chick embryo mortality studies using different strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences, 4: 297-300.
[ 17 ] Marois C., Oufour Gesbert, and Kempf F.I. 2000. Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry environment samples by culture and polymerase chain reaction. Veterinary Microbiology, 73(4): 311-318.
[ 18 ] Meynell, G.G. and Meynell, E.W. 1970. Theory and practice in experimental bacteriology, 2nd ed.
[ 19 ] Nelson J.B. 1935. Cocco-bacilliform bodies associated with an infectious fowl coryza. Science, 82:43-44.
[ 20 ] O’Connor R.J., Turner K.S., Sander J.E., Kleven S.H., Brown T.P., Gomez L.Jr., and Cline J.L. 1999. Pathogenic effects on domestic poultry of a mycoplasma gallisepticum strain isolated from a wild house finch. Avian Diseases, 43: 640-648.
[ 21 ] Power J. and Jordan F.T.W. 1976. A comparison of the virulence of three strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and one strain of Mycoplasma gallinarum in chicks, turkey poults, tracheal organ cultures and embryonated fowl eggs. Research Veterinary Science, 21: 41-46.
[ 22 ] Reis R. and Yamamoto R. 1971. Pathogenesis of single and mixed infections caused by Mycoplasma meleagridis and Mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkey embryos. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 32: 63-74.
[ 23 ] Roberts D.H. and Olesiuk O.M. 1966. Immunological competence of the chick embryo and neonatal chicken to Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 11:490-494.
[ 24 ] Soeripto, Whithear K.G., Cottew G.S. and Harrigan K.E. 1989. Virulence and transmissibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Australian Veterinary Journal, 66(3): 65-72.
[ 25 ] Tan Ching Giap. 2004. Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in commercial and village chickens in Penang. DVM Dissertation. Universiti Putra Malaysia.
[ 26 ] Wakenell P.S., DaMassa A.J. and Yamamoto R. 1995. In ovo Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma iners Strain Oz. Avian Diseases, 39(2): 390-397.
[ 27 ] Yap Mee Ling. 2005. Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in pipped embryos. DVM Dissertation. Universiti Putra Malaysia.
[ 28 ] Yoder H.W. JR 1986. A historical account of the diagnosis and characterization of strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum of low virulence. Avian Diseases, 30: 510-518.
[ 29 ] Yoder H.W. Jr. 1991. Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. In Diseases of poultry (B.W. Calnek, C.W. Beard, H.J. Barnes, W.M. Reid & H.W. Yoder Jr, eds). 9th Ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 198-212.
[ 30 ] Yoder H.W. Jr. 1964. Characterization of avian Mycoplasma. Avian Diseases, 8: 481-512.
[ 31 ] Yoder, H.W. Jr. 1991. Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. In: Calnek, B.W., Barnes H.J., Beard, C.W., Reid, W.M. & Yoder, H.W.Jr. (Eds) Disease of Poultry, 9th edition, pp 198-212 (Iowa, Iowa State University Press).
[ 32 ] Yogev D., Levisohn S. and Razin S. 1989. Genetic and antigenic relatedness between Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. Vet. Microbiol., 19, 75-84.
[ 33 ] Yogev D., Levisohn S., Kleven S.H., Halachimi D. and Razin S. 1988. Ribosomal RNA gene probes to detect intraspecies heterogenity in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae. Avian Diseases, 32: 220-231.
[ 34 ] Yogev D., Menaker D., Stritzberg K., Levisohn S., Kirchhoff H., Hinz K.H. and Rosengarten R. 1994. A surface epitope undergoing high-frequency phase variation is shared by Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma bovis. Infection and Immunity, 62: 4962-4968.
[ 35 ] Zander D.V. 1961. Origin of S6 strain mycoplasma. Avian Diseases, 5: 154-156.